What is a Hacker?

What is a Hacker?

In the world of information technology, the act of gaining unauthorized access to systems or devices and manipulating data is called “hacking.” Individuals who engage in these unauthorized activities are referred to as “hackers.” The word “hacker” is often translated as “pirate” in our language. However, this is an incorrect term because not all skilled individuals in the field of technology resort to illegal methods and are still considered hackers.

Hackers are individuals with unique skills and abilities compared to ordinary people. They have demonstrated expertise in various aspects of information technology such as systems, networks, and software. If they use these skills for actions that constitute a crime, they are labeled as “cyber criminals” by the law and are subject to legal action.

In the design of any system, there is always a possibility of vulnerabilities that could be exploited. Considering that these systems are created by humans, it is quite normal for another human to discover their vulnerabilities. This is why some hackers attempt to access unauthorized areas by finding vulnerabilities in systems. Often, they cause harm to users.

While hackers are often categorized as either good or bad in society, they can be further classified into several theoretical divisions. The most commonly encountered types of hackers today can be listed under a few headings:

Hacktivist: These individuals damage certain websites to express their opposition to social or political issues that they consider wrong.
Black Hat: Also referred to as “pirates.” They infiltrate personal or corporate systems and steal or render data unusable. They are currently the most harmful hacker group.
White Hat: These individuals, like black hats, can gain access to all kinds of systems by finding vulnerabilities. However, the key difference is that they do not cause harm to data or systems but rather warn the owners of these systems. They can be considered as a sort of Robin Hood.
Grey Hat: These individuals adapt their good or bad status based on the specific situation. However, they generally operate within legal boundaries.

In addition, terms such as software pirate, phreaker, script kiddie, and lamer can also be mentioned. Although they are generally classified as good or bad, it should not be forgotten that every hacking operation is a practice that threatens security. Without precautions, individuals or organizations can suffer long-term damage. Reference

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